PENNSYLVANIA 20 Electoral Votes 
link to clickable map
(Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Pennsylvania Department of State)
Total Resident Population, July 1, 2019 est.
Total Registration, Nov.. 2020

Pennsylvania has: 67 counties.

Largest counties: Philadelphia, Allegheny, Montgomery, Bucks, Delaware.
Largest cities: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie. 

Governor: Tom Wolf (D) re-elected 2018.
State Legislature: Pennsylvania General Assembly   House: 203 seats   Senate: 50 seats
Local: Counties, Municipalities...   NACO
U.S. House: 9R, 9D - 1. B.Fitzpatrick (R) | 2. B.Boyle (D) | 3. D.Evans (D) | 4. M.Dean (D) | 5. M.G.Scanlon (D) | 6. C.Houlahan (D) | 7. S.Wild (D) | 8. M.Cartwright (D) | 9. D.Meuser (R) | 10. S.Perry (R) | 11. L.Smucker (R) | 12. F.Keller (R) | 13. J.Joyce (R) | 14. G.Reschenthaler (R) | 15. GT Thompson (R) | 16. M.Kelly (R) | 17. C.Lamb (D) | 18. M.Doyle (D).   >
U.S. Senate: Bob Casey Jr. (D) re-elected in 2018, Pat Toomey (R) re-elected in 2016. 
U.S. House:  All 18 members are seeking re-election. 
One race to watch is PA-1 (Bucks Co.), where Rep. Brian Fitzpatrick (R) is being challenged by Christina Finello (D).
Also note:
In PA-12 (Central and Northern PA) Rep. Tom Marino (R) resigned effective Jan. 23, 2019.  Fred Keller (R) was elected in a May 21, 2019 special election.
State Legislature:
In the Senate 25 of 50 seats are up and in the House all 203 seats are up. 

Ballot Measures:
No statewide ballot measures.

 State of Pennsylvania
Department of State

PA Democratic Party
Republican State Comm. of PA
Libertarian Party of PA
Green Party of PA
Constitution Party of PA

Inquirer/Daily News, p
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, p
TV, Radio
City & State PA


The Keystone State
General Election -- Tuesday, November 3, 2020

Voter Registration Deadline: Oct. 19, 2020.

Vote by Mail Litigation
   Pennsylvania has seen perhaps the most robust litigation on vote by mail of any state.  One of the most closely contested issues is
the "received-by deadline for mail-in ballots," in other words whether mail-in ballots must be received by Election Day, or if they can be postmarked by Election Day and counted a fixed number of days thereafter.  The matter has not been definitively resolved and the U.S. Supreme Court could still weigh in after the election.
   Another issue raised is use of drop boxes; in late June 2020 the Trump campaign and four Republican congressmen from Western PA filed a lawsuit against county election boards challenging some practices including the use of mail ballot drop boxes. 
   There are also questions over minor errors in absentee ballots such as "naked ballots," where the voter neglected to use the secrecy envelope.
On the ballot

Biden/Harris (Dem.)

Trump/Pence (Rep.)

Jorgensen/Cohen (Lib.)

Ballot Access: Requirement of 5,000 valid signatures from registered Pennsylvania voters between Feb. 19 and Aug. 3, 2020.  Litigation by the Libertarian Party of Pennsylvania et al. to waive the requirement proved unsuccessful (+).  The Libertarian ticket qualified and the Green Party ticket appeared to have qualified, but a Sept. 17, 2020 ruling by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court struck Hawkins/Walker off the ballot (+).
Overview: Trump eked out a narrow upset here in 2016 but a repeat in 2020 is likely to be very difficult.  Republicans, Democrats and aligned groups are engaging voters in this battleground state (R | D, allies | L).
    Native son Joe Biden hails from Scranton—he spent his first ten years there until his family moved to Delaware in 1953.  He set up his campaign headquarters in Philadelphia
and held his kickoff rally at Eakins Oval in Philadelphia in May 2019 (+).  Additionally Jill Biden is a "Philly girl," having grown up in Willow Grove.
   While officials in states around the country are grappling with mail in voting, Pennsylvania was ahead of the curve; on Oct. 31, 2019, Gov. Wolf signed Act 77, "the most significant improvement to Pennsylvania’s elections in more than 80 years," which included no excuse mail in voting, a 50-day mail in voting period and 15 additional days to register to vote (+).  Further aiding voters, the Secretary of State is providing funding to cover postage for mail-in and absentee ballots (+).
   By the latter part of September, Pennsylvania assumed an increasingly important role in the Trump campaign's electoral calculations.  Principals and surrogates from both campaigns  visied frequently.  On Oct. 31 Trump made four visits around the state and Biden has scheduled events here on Nov. 1 and 2.
   The U.S. Department of Justice was on the alert for violations of law
(1, 2), and legal teams from both camps were poised and ready for post-election litigation (+)
 Trump  |  Biden

See also:
Jonathan Tamari and Jonathan Lai.  "With the vote count now over, here's how Pennsylvania broke for Joe Biden."  Philadelphia Inquirer, Nov. 29, 2020.

Sean Sullivan.  "Democrats grow more anxious about Pennslyvania."  The Washington Post, Oct. 31, 2020.

Jamie Martines.  "Potentially thousands of requested mail ballots lost in Butler County, official says."  Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Oct. 29, 2020.

Jonathan LeMire Marc Levy and Thomas Beaumont.  "Trump shifts focus to Pennsylvania to shore up reelection."  AP, Sept. 26, 2020.

Politico: Pennsylvania.

Primary Election -- Tuesday, April 28, 2020 June 2, 2020
Biden 1,264,624 (79.26%), Sanders 287,834 (18.04%), Gabbard 43,050 (2.70%)  ...Total 1,595,508.

210 Delegates: 125 District, 41 At-Large, 20 PLEO and 24 Unpledged.

Trump 1,053,616 (92.14%), Weld 69,427 (6.07%), De La Fuente 20,456 (1.79%)  ...Total 1,143,499.

General Election Winners in Pennsylvania, 1992-2016
1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016
  and the details...

General Election -- Tuesday, November 8, 2016
Voting Eligible Population*: 9,701,644.
VEP Highest Office Turnout Rate: 63.6%.

Registration: Dem. 4,266,317 (50.14%)   Rep. 3,131,144 (36.80%)   Other Parties 1,110,554 (13.05%) ...Total 8,508,015

Voter Registration Deadline: Oct. 11, 2016.

Official Results >

Clinton/Kaine (Dem.)
+Trump/Pence (Rep.)
Castle/Bradley (Const.)
Stein/Baraka (Grn.)
Johnson/Weld (Lib.)

Overview: Democrats signaled Pennsylvania's importance by holding their Convention in Philadelphia.  Pennsylvania is the battleground state that in recent elections has inevitably seemed to end up in the Democratic column; the last Republican to win here was George H.W. Bush over Michael Dukakis in 1988.  However, the Trump campaign believed it could win, worked the Keystone State hard and achieved the upset victory.  Trump carried 56 of 67 counties, winning by a plurality of 44,292 votes (0.73 percentage points).  Democrats' hopes of picking up the U.S. Senate seat held by Pat Toomey also fell a bit short, and they lost a few seats in the General Assembly as well.  In Philadelphia County Clinton won by 475,277 votes -- 584,025 (82.53%) to 108,748 (15.37%).  Meanwhile, the Trump campaign made a strong effort in the collar counties surrounding Philadelphia, including a number of "Coffee with Ivanka" events and the only solo speech of the fall campaign by Melania Trump, in Berwyn on Nov. 3.
1. See: Brandon Finnigan.  "Why Trump Can Win Pennsylvania," National Review, July 25, 2016.

General Election Visits
Clinton  |  Trump

General Election -- Tuesday, November 6, 2012
Voting Eligible Population*: 9,674.379.
VEP Highest Office Turnout Rate: 59.4%.

Registration: Dem. 4,266,317 (50.14%)   Rep. 3,131,144 (36.80%)   Other Parties 1,110,554 (13.05%)  ...Total 8,508,015.

Voter Registration Deadline: Oct. 9, 2012. +

Official Results >

Romney/Ryan (Rep.) 2,680,434 (46.68)
Obama/Biden (Dem.)
2,990,274 (52.08)
Stein/Honkala (Grn.)
21,341 (0.37)
Johnson/Gray (Lib.)

2012 Overview
The Romney campaign made a play in Pennsylvania and improved significantly on the 2008 McCain tally, but the outcome was the same.  Obama-Biden carried the state by 309,840 votes (5.40 percentage points).  Romney carried 54 counties to 13 for Obama, but could not overcome Obama's strong showing in Philadelphia: 588,806 (85.29%) to 96,467 (13.97%), a plurality of 492,339 votes.
General Election Details
Obama  |  Romney

General Election -- Tuesday, November 4, 2008
Voting Eligible Population*: 9,363,381.
VEP Highest Office Turnout Rate: 64.2%.

Registration: Dem. 4,480,691 (51.16%)   Rep. 3,243,391 (37.03%)   No Affiliation 464,968 (5.31%)   All Other 568,981 (6.50%)  ...Total   8,758,031.

Last day to register before the General Election is Oct. 6, 2008.  >

                           Official Results >

+Obama/Biden (Dem.) 3,276,363
McCain/Palin (Rep.)
Nader/Gonzalez (Ind.)
42,977 (0.72)
Barr/Root (Lib.)
19,912 (0.33)

2008 Overview
Pennsylvania became a must win state for McCain.  The Republican campaign made an intense effort in the state, but Obama-Biden achieved a comfortable margin of 620,478 votes (10.35 percentage points); McCain carried 49 counties to 18 for Obama.  In Philadelphia County Obama won 83.1% of the vote, gaining 595,980 votes to 117,221 for McCain (a plurality of 478,759 votes).
General Election Details
Obama/Allies  |  McCain/Allies  | 

General Election -- Tuesday, November 2, 2004
Voting Eligible Population*: 9,221,962.
VEP Highest Office Turnout Rate: 62.6%.

Registration: Dem. 3,985,486 (47.64%)   Rep. 3,405,278 (40.70%)   Lib. 34,258 (0.41%)  Grn. 15,788 (0.19%)   Other Parties 925,853 (11.07%)   ....Total 8,366,663.

Last day to register: Oct. 4, 2004.

Official Results

+Kerry/Edwards (Dem.)
Bush/Cheney (Rep.)
Badnarik/Campagna (Lib.) 21,185 (0.37)
Cobb/LaMarche (Grn.) 6,319
Peroutka/Baldwin (Const.)
Ralph Nader (write-in)
Scattered (write-in)

2004 Overview
854,451 more votes were cast in the presidential race in 2004 than in 2000.  The Kerry-Edwards ticket carried the state, but Bush trimmed the Democratic plurality to 144,248 votes (2.50 percentage points) and the Republican ticket also carried five more counties than it had in 2000, or 54 counties to 13 for Kerry. 
General Election Details  |  Photos
Kerry/Allies  |  Bush/Cheney '04

General Election -- Tuesday, November 7, 2000
Voting Eligible Population*: 9,086,897.
VEP Highest Office Turnout Rate: 54.1%.

Registration: Dem. 3,736,304 (48.01%)   Rep. 3,250,764 (41.77%)   Const. 7,918 (0.10%)    Lib. 30,248 (0.39%)   Other Parties 756,763  (9.72%)   ...Total 7,781,997

Last day to register: Oct. 10, 2000.
Official Results               

Bush/Cheney (Rep.)
+Gore/Lieberman (Dem.)
Phillips/Frazier (Const.)
Browne/Olivier (Lib.)
Nader/LaDuke (Grn.)
Buchanan/Foster (Ref.)

Notes: In Pennsylvania the Republicans and Democrats are major parties, while the Constitution Party and the Libertarian Party qualify as minor parties.  Others are referred to as "political bodies."  Minor party and other presidential candidates wishing to appear on the ballot in the general election needed to obtain signatures from 21,739 registered electors (2% of the highest showing by a candidate in the last statewide election) in the period from Jan. 26-Aug. 1, 2000. 
2000 Overview
Pennsylvania, with 23 electoral votes, was a battleground state from beginning to end, drawing much attention and resources from both campaigns.  Before the race even got underway, both parties considered holding their nominating conventions in Philadelphia.  On Election Night itself, when networks prematurely called Florida for Bush, Pennsylvania was for a time seen as a must-win for Bush.  As it was, Gore-Lieberman carried the state with a plurality of 204,840 votes (4.17 percentage points).  Bush carried 49 counties to 18 for Gore, but Gore won in the five most populous counties, including a plurality of 348,223 votes in Philadelphia County.
General Election Activity

1992 and 1996 General Elections
Archive Pages: 2016 | 2012 | 2008 | 2004 | 2000 1992
Clinton (Dem.).....2,239,164
Bush (Rep.).........1,791,841
Perot (PfP).............902,667
Others (2)................26,138

Clinton (Dem.).....2,215,819
Dole (Rep.)..........1,801,169
Perot (Ref.)............430,984
Others (3+w/ins).......58,146